School of Pharmacy
The School of Pharmacy is delighted that you are interested in our program. Pharmacists play an integral role in caring for patients in a multidisciplinary approach within the health-care team. While the traditional role for pharmacists is to dispense medications to patients, the practice of pharmacy is extensive and has become a "hands-on" practice. In the community setting, pharmacists administer vaccines to patients and also conduct patient assessments of ailments such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and seizures in outpatient disease-based clinics. In the institutional setting, pharmacists work closely with physicians, nurses, and allied professionals to ensure that patients are receiving appropriate doses of medications per protocol. In order to gain these skills, knowledge of pharmacy practice in drug information, pharmaceutical care, clinical therapeutics, and experiential education is vital; along with an understanding of biomedical, pharmaceutical, social, and administrative science. This catalog will introduce you to the courses and services available to help you reach your goals.
The aim of our faculty, staff, and administration is to provide an environment that helps you develop into a caring, compassionate, competent, and skillful pharmacist. We are committed to ensuring that all students gain the knowledge and skills needed for the profession, and a dedication of lifelong service to others. While a student at Loma Linda University School of Pharmacy, you will have opportunities to participate in community outreach, including programs to underserved patient populations.
The University motto, "To make man whole," combined with the mission to continue the teaching and healing ministry to Jesus Christ, is the foundation on which all programs at Loma Linda University are built. It is our desire to prepare all graduates to fulfill this mission. Welcome to the school that will help you grow spiritually, mentally, physically, socially, and professionally for a life of service to those in need.
Michael D. Hogue, Pharm.D., FAPhA, FNAP
Dean, School of Pharmacy
In 1994, a school of pharmacy was proposed to the Loma Linda University Board of Trustees; and in 1995, the board voted to continue to approve, in principle, the establishment of a school of pharmacy. The new School of Pharmacy's pioneering class of 2006 began on September 19, 2002. In July 2007, the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education granted full accreditation status to the School of Pharmacy. In October 2012, the School of Pharmacy moved into Shryock Hall, a historical building in the core of the LLU campus. The administrative team, Department of Pharmacy Practice, and Department of Experiential and Continuing Education now call Shryock Hall home. The Chan Shun Pavilion houses the Department of Pharmaceutical and Administrative Sciences and three research laboratories.
Mission, goals, and values
In addition to the mission of Loma Linda University to continue the teaching and healing ministry of Jesus Christ, the School of Pharmacy is committed to:
- Educating competent, caring pharmacists who will serve as integral members of the health-care team.
- Expanding—through research—the development of therapeutic regimens that will advance the knowledge and technology available for the treatment of disease.
- Providing high-quality pharmaceutical care to all those within the global sphere of influence of Loma Linda University.
The School of Pharmacy educates pharmacists of the highest ethical and professional standards to deliver competent and compassionate pharmaceutical care. A diverse and dynamic educational environment produces students who are practitioners, health professionals, and providers of humanitarian service to a global community. Graduates will be dedicated to lifelong learning; developing new knowledge; advancing standards of practice; and integrating physical, mental, social, and spiritual dimensions of health.
The goals of Loma Linda University School of Pharmacy are to:
- Provide pharmaceutical care in a global community.
- Expand and disseminate pharmaceutical knowledge through research and scholarly activities.
- Promote integrity and high ethical standards in conjunction with empathic attitudes that contribute to the well-being of patients and society.
- Engender and nurture the desire to serve humankind.
- Create an educational environment supportive of diverse populations and learning styles.
- Demonstrate pharmacy leadership within the University and the region.
- Encourage cultivation of self-education habits that foster lifelong learning.
- Instill positive personal health lifestyles that promote wholeness, wellness, and spiritual values.
- Incorporate educational techniques and technologies that best serve student learning.
- Promote responsible management of health-care resources and the environment.
The School of Pharmacy's academic and co-curricular activities focus on the following seven values (J-CHIEFS):
- Justice—the commitment to equality and to treat others fairly, renouncing all forms of discrimination. The God of the Bible is One who calls people continually to justice. According to the prophets, religious faith could be genuine only when it led the believers to "seek justice, rescue the oppressed, defend the orphans, [and] plead for the widow."
- Compassion—the sympathetic willingness to be engaged with the needs and sufferings of others. Among the most memorable depictions of compassion in Scripture is the story of the Good Samaritan, which Loma Linda University has taken as a central symbol of its work.
- Humility—the willingness to serve others in a sacrificial manner, and the self-respect that renounces haughtiness or arrogance.
- Integrity—the quality of living a unified life in which one's convictions are well-considered and match his/her actions. Integrity encompasses honesty, authenticity, and trustworthiness.
- Excellence—the commitment to exceed minimum standards and expectations.
- Freedom—the competency and privilege to make informed and accountable choices and to respect the freedom of others. God has called us not to slavery but to freedom.
- Purity/Self-Control—the commitment to be morally upright and moderate in all things, with complete control over one's emotions, desires, and actions.
Students of the University are responsible for informing themselves of and satisfactorily meeting all regulations pertinent to registration, matriculation, and graduation. Section III provides the general setting for the programs of each school and outlines the subject and unit requirements for admission to individual professional programs. It is important to review specific program requirements in the context of the general requirements applicable to all programs.
Transfer credit units
The School of Pharmacy does not accept students with advanced status into the Pharmacy Program.
Students must have computer proficiency prior to enrollment, which includes use of an e-mail system (including attaching a document); familiarity with a learning management system (Canvas or Blackboard); basic knowledge of word processing program(s), presentation program(s), and spreadsheet program(s). Students must also be capable of searching the Internet and navigating their computers.
Technical standards for admission, promotion, and graduation
Pharmacy education requires that the accumulation of scientific knowledge be accompanied by the simultaneous acquisition of professional skills, attitudes, and behavior. The school's faculty members have a responsibility to society to matriculate and graduate the best possible pharmacists. Thus, admission to the School of Pharmacy is offered only to those who present the highest qualifications for the study and practice of pharmacy. Technical standards presented in this document are requirements for admission to, promotion within, and graduation from the Loma Linda University School of Pharmacy.
It is the policy of Loma Linda University School of Pharmacy that no person shall be denied admission, promotion, or graduation on the basis of any disability, provided that the individual demonstrates ability to meet the minimum technical standards set forth herein. Standards are developed as criteria to achieve the Doctor of Pharmacy degree in preparation for licensure as a practicing pharmacist and for postgraduate professional training and education in any of the varied fields of pharmacy. Further, the safety of the patient must be guarded as the final and ultimate consideration. Therefore, it is not only reasonable, but also essential, for competent patient care to require minimum technical standards for the education of pharmacists.
Graduates of schools of pharmacy must have the knowledge and skills to function in a broad variety of clinical, administrative, and leadership situations, and to render a wide spectrum of pharmaceutical care. The School of Pharmacy acknowledges Section 504 of the 1973 Vocational Rehabilitation Act and PL 11-336, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) 1993, but ascertains that certain minimum technical standards must be present in prospective candidates. The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education requires that the curriculum provides a general professional education, enabling each student to eventually practice as a pharmacist generalist. This requires the development of broad knowledge, skills, behaviors, ongoing self-directed learning, and the eventual ability to deliver competent pharmaceutical care within a reasonable time frame and within the context of the legal and ethical framework of the profession.
Technical standards specify those attributes the faculty considers necessary for initiating, continuing, or completing a high-quality pharmacy education program, thus enabling each graduate to enter practice, residency, or fellowship training. Faculty members have the responsibility to monitor the maintenance of these standards. Students must be able to independently perform all described functions. A candidate for the Doctor of Pharmacy degree must have aptitude, abilities, and skills in the following areas: observation, communication, motor coordination and function; intellectual-conceptual, integrative, and quantitative abilities; behavioral and social attributes; and ethical values.
The School of Pharmacy will consider for admission any applicant who demonstrates the ability to perform or to learn to perform the skills listed in this document. Applicants are not required to disclose the nature of their disability(ies) to the Admissions Committee. However, any applicant with questions about these technical standards is strongly encouraged to discuss his/her specific issue(s) with the associate dean for student affairs and admissions prior to the interview process. If appropriate, and upon the request of the applicant, reasonable accommodations will be provided. This commitment also holds for current students whose health or abilities change while enrolled in the program.
The School of Pharmacy recognizes that certain student disabilities can be accommodated without compromising required standards and the integrity of the curriculum. Technological compensation can be made for some handicaps in these areas, but a candidate should be able to perform in a reasonably independent manner. The school is committed to the development of innovative and creative ways of opening the curriculum to competitive and qualified disabled candidates while protecting the care of patients. The use of a trained intermediary means that a candidate's judgment must be mediated by someone else's power of selection and observation. Therefore, third parties cannot be used to assist students in accomplishing curricular requirements in the skill areas specified above.
Students must be able to observe demonstrations and conduct exercises in a variety of areas related to contemporary pharmacy practice, including but not limited to monitoring of drug response and preparation of specialty dosage forms and experiments in the basic sciences. A student must be able to observe a patient accurately at a distance and close at hand, noting nonverbal as well as verbal signals. The student must be able to observe and interpret presented information. Specific observation requirements include, but are not limited to the following abilities: visualizing and discriminating findings on monitoring tests; reading written and illustrated material; observing demonstrations in the classroom or laboratory, including projected images; observing and differentiating changes in body movement; observing anatomic structures; discriminating numbers and patterns associated with diagnostic and monitoring instruments and tests; observing a patient’s environment; and competently using instruments for monitoring drug response.
A student should be able to speak, hear, and listen to patients in order to elicit information; describe changes in mood, activity, and posture; and perceive verbal as well as nonverbal communications. Students must be able to relate effectively and sensitively with patients and their caregivers/partners, and convey a sense of compassion and empathy. Students must be able to communicate effectively and sensitively with patients, colleagues, and other personnel in the School of Pharmacy. Communication includes speech, reading, writing, hearing, and computer literacy. Students must be able to communicate quickly, effectively, and efficiently in oral and written English with all members of the health-care team.
Specific requirements include but are not limited to the following abilities: communicating rapidly and clearly with members of the health-care team individually and collectively; eliciting a thorough medication and medical history; and communicating complex findings in appropriate terms that are understood by patients and their caregivers, partners, and members of the health-care team (fellow students, pharmacists, faculty and staff members, physicians, nurses, aides, therapists, social workers, and others). Students must be able to prepare and communicate concise but complete summaries of individual activities, decisions, and complex, prolonged encounters with patients. Students must be able to complete forms or appropriately document activities according to directions in a thorough and timely fashion.
Motor coordination and function
Students should have sufficient motor function and skills necessary to perform basic tasks in the practice of pharmacy and to elicit information from patients by various screening maneuvers. Students should be able to execute motor movements reasonably required to participate in the general care and emergency treatment of patients. They must be able to respond promptly to emergencies within the practice setting and must not hinder the ability of their co-workers to provide prompt care. Examples of such emergency treatment reasonably required of pharmacists include arriving quickly when called, administering cardiopulmonary resuscitation, applying pressure to stop bleeding, participating in the initiation of appropriate procedures, rapidly and accurately preparing appropriate emergency medication, and preparing sterile intravenous medications. Such actions require coordination of both gross and fine muscular movements, equilibrium, and functional use of the senses of touch and vision. Students must have sufficient sensory and motor function to monitor drug responses and to prepare and or dispense pharmaceuticals. A candidate should be able to perform basic laboratory tests (e.g., blood glucose and lipid levels); administer intramuscular and subcutaneous immunizations; compound sterile and nonsterile dosage forms; use current technology for drug information evaluation; and read EKGs, drug blood levels, and other laboratory results. It is also necessary for the student to be able to access printed and electronic disease information sources within a reasonable time and record data correctly so that it is clearly understood by other health professionals.
Intellectual--conceptual, integrative, and quantitative abilities
A student should possess sufficient intellectual, conceptual, integrative, and quantitative abilities to complete a rigorous and intense didactic and experiential curriculum. These abilities include measurement, calculation, rational reasoning, problem analysis and solving, decision making, judgment, numerical recognition, information integration, and solution synthesis. In addition, the candidate should be able to comprehend three-dimensional relationships and to understand the spatial relations of structures. Especially important is the appropriate and rapid calculation of dosages for a variety of patient-specific conditions, such as renal or hepatic failure, obesity, and cardiac or respiratory arrest. Additionally, calculations involving appropriate dilution or reconstitution of drug products, such as electrolytes, must be made accurately and quickly. Problem solving and critical skills demanded of all pharmacists require all of the above-mentioned intellectual abilities and must be performed quickly, especially in emergency situations. The ability to incorporate new information from peers or teachers and to locate and evaluate new information from the literature to be used appropriately in formulating assessments and pharmaceutical care plans is essential, as is good judgment in patient assessment and therapeutic planning for disease management. Students must be able to identify and acknowledge the limits of their knowledge to others when appropriate and be able to recognize when the limits of their knowledge indicate that further study or investigation is essential before participating in decision making. A student must be fully alert and attentive at all times in clinical settings.
Behavioral and social attributes
Empathy, integrity, honesty, concern for others, kindness, patience, good interpersonal skills, interest, and motivation are all required personal qualities Students must possess the emotional and mental health required for full use of their intellectual abilities, the exercise of good judgment, the prompt completion of all responsibilities attendant to the screening and care of patients, and the development of mature, sensitive, and effective relationships with patients of differing cultures and backgrounds. Students must also be able to develop mature, sensitive, and effective relationships with patients and their caregivers and partners—providing comfort and reassurance when appropriate. Students must possess adequate endurance to be able to tolerate physically, intellectually, and emotionally taxing workloads; and to function effectively under stress or with distractions. At times, this requires the ability to be aware of and appropriately react to one's own immediate emotional responses and environment. For example, students must maintain a professional demeanor and organization in the face of long hours and personal fatigue, dissatisfied patients, and tired colleagues.
Students must develop the skills necessary to instruct and supervise technical personnel assisting with the delivery of pharmaceutical services. Students are expected to accept appropriate suggestions and criticism and, if necessary, respond quickly, appropriately, and cooperatively by modification of behavior. Empathy, patience, integrity, concern for others, interpersonal skills, interest, and motivation are all personal qualities that should be assessed during admission and education processes.
A student must demonstrate the highest level of professional demeanor and behavior; and must perform in an ethical manner in all dealings with peers, faculty members, staff, and patients. Students must also be able to develop professional relationships with patients and their caregivers and partners while protecting patient confidentiality. Students must also meet the expected ethical standards set forth by the pharmacy profession. Good moral character, decent values, and principled judgment are paramount attributes for being a professional. In order to participate in key components of the curriculum, a student must be able to obtain and maintain a valid intern pharmacist license from the California State Board of Pharmacy and pass requisite criminal background checks and random illegal drug screens required by the Board of Pharmacy or affiliated clinical institutions of Loma Linda University.
Applicable technical standards requirements
- observes demonstrations and participates in experiments in the basic pharmaceutical sciences.
- analyzes, synthesizes, extrapolates, solves problems, and reaches therapeutic judgments and monitoring parameters.
- sufficiently uses the senses of vision and hearing and the somatic sensation necessary to perform a physical assessment. (For example, the candidate/student performs palpation, auscultation, and percussion.)
- relates to patients of all cultures and backgrounds and establishes sensitive, professional relationships with them.
- communicates therapeutic options and decisions to the patient and to colleagues with accuracy, clarity, and efficiency.
- learns and performs routine laboratory tests and screening procedures.
- performs with precise, quick, and appropriate actions in emergency situations.
- displays good judgment in the assessment and treatment of patients.
- possesses the perseverance, diligence, and consistency to complete the pharmacy school curriculum and to enter the practice of pharmacy.
- accepts criticism and responds with the appropriate modification of behavior.
Candidates for the Doctor of Pharmacy degree must have somatic sensation and functional use of the senses of vision and hearing. Candidates must have sufficient use of senses (touch, pain, temperature, position, pressure, movement, and vibration) and motor function to permit them to carry out the activities described above. Students must be able to consistently, quickly, and accurately integrate all information received by whatever sense(s) employed; and must have the intellectual ability to learn, integrate, analyze, and synthesize data. Finally, students must have good moral character, decent values, and principled judgment; and are expected to meet the ethical standards set forth by the pharmacy profession.
Any faculty or administrative team member may question any enrolled student’s or admission candidate’s ability to meet any technical standard. A request for investigation of a specific individual must be made in writing to the associate dean for student affairs and admissions, detailing the reasons why such an evaluation is deemed necessary. The dean will be notified if such a request is granted.
The information on student life contained in this CATALOG is brief. The University Student Handbook more comprehensively addresses University and school expectations, regulations, and policies; and is available to each registered student. Students need to familiarize themselves with the contents of the Student Handbook. Additional information regarding policies specific to a particular school or program within the University is available from the respective school.
The School of Pharmacy prepares a school-specific Policy and Procedure Manual, which is provided to all pharmacy students. Regulations, policies, procedures, and other program requirements are contained in this manual.
Health check requirements
All new students are required to have the immunizations listed below before their first registration. Students will not be allowed to register without a valid and completed immunization record. It is strongly recommended that all required immunizations and physical examinations be obtained by the student before arrival on campus. All immunizations, except the third hepatitis B, can be completed in one month. Many county health departments offer these immunizations at a reduced cost.
- Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR)—Series of two injections must be current after 1980 or show a positive MMR titer.
- Tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis (Tdap)—Must be current within ten years. (Note: tetanus-only or Td vaccine does not meet the requirement; must contain the pertussis component.)
- Hepatitis B—Series of three injections, recombinant form-Engerix-B or Recombivax-HB; or series of two injections, intradermal form Heplisav-B consistent with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention current recommendations.
- Tuberculosis skin test (PPD Mantoux)—Must be current within six months. (If student tests positive, a chest X-ray report done within the past year is required.)
- Varicella (chickenpox)—Must show proof of a positive Varicella titer.
A completed immunization record form must be submitted to the School of Pharmacy Office and must be uploaded to the E-Value program in Experiential Education, as well as to Student Health Services. A valid and completed immunization record is required before the student can register.
Documentation of a physical examination is required for entrance into the program. For additional information, please contact Student Health Services directly at 909/558-8770.
Students are required to pass a background check prior to each Autumn Quarter registration to comply with clinical site regulations. Applicants receive detailed information through the applicant portal regarding the process for obtaining the background check.
Pharmacy intern license
California law requires that all pharmacy students be licensed as interns before participating in any pharmacy practice experience. Consequently, all enrolled students must possess a valid, non-probationary intern pharmacist license to participate in the experiential components of the Pharm.D. program. Application for this license is part of the orientation program scheduled prior to the start of the PY1 year.
Loma Linda University seeks to educate ethical and proficient pharmacists within a Christian paradigm. Fundamental core values of compassion, integrity, freedom, excellence, justice, purity, and humility are expected of each student attending the School of Pharmacy. Integrity is important in upholding the standards of professional and personal conduct and is consistent with the oath that is taken upon graduation. It includes being accountable for one's own conduct, as well as assuming responsibility for the professional behavior of one's colleagues within the profession. Professionalism involves treating others with courtesy and respect. It is expected that all School of Pharmacy students will exhibit conduct that shows respect to others at all times.
Code of conduct
In harmony with the goals of Loma Linda University, students are expected to demonstrate a pattern of personal discipline with lifestyle expectations that are consistent with those of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. Joining the Loma Linda University family is an honor and requires each individual to uphold the policies, regulations, and guidelines established for all members of the University team. The following are expected of each member of the Loma Linda University family:
- To respect oneself.
- To respect the dignity, feelings, worth, and values of others.
- To respect the rights and property of others and to discourage vandalism and theft.
- To prohibit discrimination while striving to learn from differences in people, ideas, and opinions.
- To practice personal, professional, and academic integrity; and to discourage all forms of dishonesty, plagiarism, deceit, and disloyalty to the code of conduct.
- To foster a personal, professional work ethic within the Loma Linda University family.
- To foster an open, fair, and caring environment.
- To be fully responsible for upholding the Loma Linda University code.
Specific policies are outlined in greater detail in the University Student Handbook.
CPR and first aid certification
All students must be currently certified in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and first aid during their enrollment in the School of Pharmacy.
Professional development activities occur within the curriculum (for-credit coursework) and as as part of the co-curricular (not-for-credit, but required learning sessions/activities) program adopted by the faculty and required for completion prior to graduation. Students will learn to develop professional skills and abilities consistent with the expectations of the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education accreditation standards 3 and 4, as well as programmatic expectations articulated by the faculty as part of the curricular and co-curricular plans of study. We aim to graduate pharmacists who practice their profession with the highest degree of professionalism and with excellence.
Involvement in professional organizations is an integral part of the educational and professional experience within the School of Pharmacy. The complete list of School of Pharmacy-recognized professional organizations can be found in the Professional Organization Policies and Procedure Manual. This manual is maintained by the Associate Dean for Student Affairs and Admissions.
Organization membership by invitation
The School of Pharmacy endorses three organizations in which student membership is by invitation only. Membership in these organizations is seen as prestigious and indicative of superior academic achievement and leadership.
- California Pharmacy Student Leadership
- Rho Chi Pharmaceutical Honor Society
- Phi Lambda Sigma National Pharmacy Leadership Society
Each class elects leaders to serve as student representatives to administration and to guide the class in addressing student-related issues. The Office of Student Affairs works closely with class leaders—assisting with class issues, helping plan events, and facilitating a strong communication link to and from students. Each class also elects a full-time faculty member to serve as class advisor. The advisor's function is to serve as mentor, keep abreast of class issues, and maintain an open communication link with the associate dean for student affairs and admissions.
Curriculum outcome objectives
On August 21, 2014, the faculty approved and adopted the following outcomes, which are based on CAPE 2013 educational outcomes.
Domain 1—Foundational Knowledge
Subdomain 1.1. Learner (Learner)—Develop, integrate, and apply knowledge from the foundational sciences (i.e., pharmaceutical, social/behavioral/administrative, and clinical sciences) to evaluate the scientific literature, explain drug action, solve therapeutic problems, and advance population health and patient-centered care.
By the end of the program, the graduate should be able to:
1.1.1. Develop and demonstrate depth and breadth of knowledge in pharmaceutical, social/behavioral/administrative, and clinical sciences.
1.1.2. Articulate how knowledge in foundational sciences is integral to: 1) clinical reasoning, 2) evaluation of future advances in pharmacotherapy, 3) supporting health and wellness initiatives, and 4) delivery of contemporary pharmacy services.
1.1.3. Integrate knowledge from foundational sciences to explain how specific drugs or drug classes work, and evaluate their potential value in individuals and populations.
1.1.4. Apply knowledge in foundational sciences to solve therapeutic problems and advance patient-centered care.
1.1.5. Analyze scientific literature related to drugs and disease to enhance clinical decision making.
1.1.6. Identify and analyze emerging theories, information, and technologies that may impact patient-centered and population-based care.
Domain 2—Essentials for Practice and Care
Subdomain 2.1. Patient-centered care (Caregiver)—Provide patient-centered care as the medication expert (collect and interpret evidence; prioritize; formulate assessments and recommendations; implement, monitor and adjust plans; and document activities).
By the end of the program, the graduate should be able to:
2.1.1. Collect subjective and objective evidence related to patient, medications, allergies/adverse reactions, and disease by performing patient assessment (including physical assessment) from chart/electronic health records, pharmacist records, and patient/family interviews.
2.1.2. Interpret evidence and patient data.
2.1.3. Prioritize patient needs.
2.1.4. Formulate evidence-based care plans, assessments, and recommendations.
2.1.5. Implement patient-care plans.
2.1.6. Monitor the patient and adjust care plan as needed.
2.1.7. Document patient care-related activities.
Subdomain 2.2. Medication-use systems management (Manager)—Manage patient health-care needs using human, financial, technological, and physical resources to optimize the safety and efficacy of medication-use systems.
By the end of the program, the graduate should be able to:
2.2.1. Compare and contrast the components of typical medication-use systems in different pharmacy practice settings.
2.2.2. Describe the role of the pharmacist in impacting the safety and efficacy of each component of a typical medication-use system (i.e., procurement, storage, prescribing, transcription, dispensing, administration, monitoring, documentation, and outcomes).
2.2.3. Utilize technology to optimize the medication-use system.
2.2.4. Identify and utilize human, financial, and physical resources to optimize the medication-use system.
2.2.5. Manage health-care needs of patients during transitions of care.
2.2.6. Apply standards, guidelines, best practices, and established processes related to safe and effective medication use.
2.2.7. Utilize continuous quality improvement techniques in the medication-use process.
Subdomain 2.3. Health and wellness (Promoter)—Design prevention, intervention, and educational strategies for individuals and communities to manage chronic disease and improve health and wellness.
By the end of the program, the graduate should be able to:
2.3.1. Describe the use of risk assessment, risk reduction, screening, education, and immunizations to provide systematic preventive care.
2.3.2. Provide prevention, intervention, and educational strategies for individuals and communities to improve health and wellness.
2.3.3. Participate with interprofessional health-care team members in the management of and health promotion for all patients.
2.3.4. Evaluate personal, social, behavioral, economic, and environmental conditions to improve health and wellness.
Subdomain 2.4. Population-based care (Provider)—Describe how population-based care influences patient-centered care, the development of practice guidelines and evidence-based best practices.
By the end of the program, the graduate should be able to:
2.4.1. Assess the health-care status and needs of a targeted patient population.
2.4.2. Develop and provide an evidence-based approach that considers items—including cost, care, access, satisfaction needs, and cultural appropriateness of a targeted patient population.
2.4.3. Participate in population health management by evaluating, recommending, and/or adjusting interventions to maximize health.
Domain 3—Approach to Practice and Care
Subdomain 3.1. Problem solving (Problem Solver)—Identify problems; explore and prioritize potential strategies; and design, implement, and evaluate a viable solution.
By the end of the program, the graduate should be able to:
3.1.1. Identify and define the primary problem.
3.1.2. Define basic and alternative goals.
3.1.3. Explore multiple solutions by organizing, prioritizing, and defending each possible solution.
3.1.4. Anticipate positive and negative outcomes by reviewing assumptions, inconsistencies, and unintended consequences.
3.1.5. Implement the most viable solution, including monitoring parameters, to measure intended and unintended consequences.
3.1.6. Reflect on the solution implemented and its effects to improve future performance.
Subdomain 3.2. Educator (Educator)—Educate all audiences by determining the most effective and enduring ways to impart information and assess understanding.
By the end of the program, the graduate should be able to:
3.2.1. Conduct a learning needs assessment of constituents who would benefit from pharmacist-delivered education (e.g., patients/caregivers, technicians and interns, pharmacy students, fellow pharmacists, other health-care providers, legislators).
3.2.2. Select the most effective techniques/strategies to achieve learning objectives.
3.2.3. Demonstrate the ability to coordinate educational efforts with other health-care providers, when appropriate, to ensure a consistent, comprehensive, and team-based encounter.
3.2.4. Ensure that instructional content contains the most current information relevant for the intended audience.
3.2.5. Adapt instruction and delivery to the intended audience.
3.2.6. Assess audience comprehension.
Subdomain 3.3. Patient advocacy (Advocate)—Assure that patients’ best interests are represented.
By the end of the program, the graduate should be able to:
3.3.1. Incorporate elements of Loma Linda University’s wholeness philosophy to empower patients to take responsibility for and control of their health.
3.3.2. Assist patients in navigating the complex health-care system.
3.3.3. Ensure patients obtain the resources and care required in an efficient and cost-effective manner (e.g., triage to social and/or other health-care services).
Subdomain 3.4. Interprofessional collaboration (Collaborator)—Actively participate and engage as a health-care team member by demonstrating mutual respect, understanding, and values to meet patient-care needs.
By the end of the program, the graduate should be able to:
3.4.1. Establish a climate of shared values and mutual respect necessary to meet patient-care needs.
3.4.2. Define clear roles and responsibilities for team members to optimize outcomes for specific patient-care encounters.
3.4.3. Communicate in a manner that values team-based decision making and shows respect for contributions from other areas of expertise.
3.4.4. Foster accountability and leverage expertise to form a highly functioning team (one that includes the patient, family, and community) and promote shared patient-centered problem solving.
Subdomain 3.5. Cultural sensitivity (Includer)—Recognize social determinants of health to diminish disparities and inequities in access to quality care.
By the end of the program, the graduate should be able to:
3.5.1. Recognize the collective identity and norms of different cultures without overgeneralizing (i.e., recognize and avoid biases and stereotyping).
3.5.2. Demonstrate an attitude that is respectful of different cultures.
3.5.3. Assess a patient’s health literacy and modify communication strategies to meet the patient’s needs.
3.5.4. Safely and appropriately incorporate patients’ cultural beliefs and practices into health and wellness care plans.
Subdomain 3.6. Communication (Communicator)—Effectively communicate verbally and non-verbally when interacting with an individual, group, or organization.
By the end of the program, the graduate should be able to:
3.6.1. Interview patients using an organized structure, specific questioning techniques, and medical terminology adapted for the audience.
3.6.2. Actively listen and ask appropriate open- and closed-ended questions to gather information.
3.6.3. Use available technology and other media to assist with communication as appropriate.
3.6.4. Use effective interpersonal skills to establish rapport and build trusting relationships.
3.6.5. Communicate responsibly with assertiveness, persuasiveness, confidence, and clarity.
3.6.6. Demonstrate empathy when interacting with others.
3.6.7. Deliver and obtain feedback to assess learning and promote goal setting and goal attainment.
3.6.8. Develop professional documents pertinent to organizational needs.
3.6.9. Document patient-care activities clearly, concisely, and accurately using appropriate medical terminology.
Academic integrity policy
Academic dishonesty is an act of deliberate deceit in the fulfillment of a student's obligations to the academic community. It includes, but is not limited to, the failure to observe rules of fairness in taking examinations or writing papers, plagiarism, fabrication and cheating. "Examinations" are defined as regularly scheduled tests, quizzes (scheduled or unscheduled), final examinations, comprehensive assessments, take-home tests, open-book tests, and any other assignment given by an instructor or preceptor whether for a grade, points toward a grade, or for zero points (e.g., a learning exercise).
a. Plagiarism is the act of presenting the work of another as if it were one's own. It includes quoting, paraphrasing, summarizing or utilizing material from the Internet or from books, articles in periodicals, magazines, or newspapers without appropriate citation. In addition, any unacknowledged use of another's ideas constitutes plagiarism, including the use of papers written by other students, interviews, radio or TV broadcasts, or any published or unpublished materials (e.g. letters, pamphlets, leaflets, notes or documents).
b. Fabrication is the act of contriving or making up material, data or other information (e.g. research data, patient test results) and submitting such as fact.
c. Cheating is the act of deceiving, which includes such acts as looking at another's examination during the examination, using unauthorized aids (e.g. notes, electronic equipment) to retrieve or communicate information during examinations, or whatever else is deemed contrary to the rules of fairness including violation of specific rules designated by the instructor of the course.
d. Facilitation of academic dishonesty is the act of attempting to help someone engage in plagiarism, fabrication, cheating or any other type of academic dishonesty.
Disciplinary action for violation of the academic integrity policy may include receiving a failing grade on the examination or assignment, a failing grade in the course, suspension, or dismissal from the program.
e. School of Pharmacy procedures
(1) If any faculty member, employee or student of the School has reason to believe that academic dishonesty or unethical conduct may have occurred, the incident may be reported immediately (verbal or written). If the incident is not reported immediately, it must be reported in writing to the course coordinator within 48 hours. The course coordinator must report the incident to the Office of Academic Affairs. Failure to report breaches of integrity is considered a failure of academic and/or professional responsibility—and thus, may be subject to disciplinary action by the School or University. An instructor may take immediate action during an examination or other point generating activity in order to maintain the integrity of the academic process.
(2) When allegations of misconduct are made, the Office of Academic Affairs is responsible to ensure that an inquiry is made. This central reporting system allows patterns of behavior to be considered in determining the appropriate course of action. A discussion with the accused student will take place before formal action is taken. The student will have the opportunity to submit a written response concerning the specific incident.
(3) The Office of Academic Affairs will inform the student in writing if formal disciplinary action is taken. The student has the right to appeal the decision.
It is illegal for anyone to access any medical record that they have not been given specific permission to access including their own profile. HIPAA (protected health information) violations are reported directly to the dean. The dean will meet with the student to review the compliance report. The Dean may seek counsel on appropriate disciplinary action from academic, institutional and/or other agency personnel. The dean will determine the appropriate disciplinary action, and communicate the actions(s) taken to the student and corporate compliance officer. In all cases, the action of the dean is final. The student may only follow through with a University-level procedural appeal as related to the procedures contained in this section (i.e., HIPAA Violations).
LLUSP provides interprofessional education (IPE) experiences for pharmacy students to develop their professional communication skills and to use their knowledge and experience to provide a team-based approach and patient-centered care.
It is required for all pharmacy students to participate in scheduled IPE related courses and events throughout their didactic education and clinical training.
- Any student who fails to achieve a minimum cumulative GPA of 2.0 in all courses at the conclusion of the academic year (PY1-PY3) will be dismissed from the Pharm.D program.
A minimum grade of C is required to pass all pharmacy courses (required and elective).
- Upon failing a required course, and after completing all required courses which are in-progress, a PY1 student will be placed on a leave-of-absence and the intern license will be cancelled until she/he returns to retake the failed course work.
- Upon failing a required course, and after completing all required courses which are in-progress, a PY2 and PY3 student may choose to enroll in elective courses for which she/he is qualified. This permits the student to maintain his/her intern license. The student is permitted to participate in campus activities and student organizations (no leadership roles or competitions), and maintain his/her intern license. Alternatively, the student may go on academic leave of absence and surrender his/her intern license, until she/he returns to re-take the failed coursework.
- Upon return, the student must repeat the course(s) failed initially. Returning students are able to take elective courses for which they are qualified at their own discretion. Repeated courses are posted as actual grade earned (per LLU policy), however both grades remain on the transcript. Only the latter grade is used for G.P.A. calculations.
- Failing more than nine credit hours of required course work, whether accumulated in a single academic term or throughout the entire academic program, will result in dismissal from the program. A student will have a maximum of six academic years to complete the Doctor of Pharmacy degree, beginning with the initial date of matriculation.
- Students must complete nine units of elective courses by the end of the PY3 year.
- Withdrawing from individual required courses (as a full-time student) is not permitted and will result in an automatic withdrawal from all enrolled courses for that term. Withdrawing from an entire block of courses requires administrative approval and requires the student to return and retake the entire block the next academic year.
- Withdrawing from elective courses incurs no penalty as it pertains to the progression policy.
Progression/remediation policy for PY4
- All APPE courses must be passed with a grade of "S" (satisfactory). Any student who receives a "U" (unsatisfactory) will have to repeat the APPE course.
- Any student who fails one (1) APPE course during the PY4 year will be allowed to participate in the commencement ceremonies only if he or she does not have more than nine (9) credit hours of failed or withdrawn (see section “e”) required courses since the start of the program. However, the student’s degree will not be awarded until he or she successfully passes the previously failed rotation when it is offered in the following academic year.
- Students failing two APPE courses will be dismissed from the program because they will have failed more than nine (9) credit hours of required courses.
Good academic standing
To remain in good academic standing, Pharmacy students must maintain a minimum cumulative grade point average of 2.0.
Each student’s academic status will be reviewed by the Academic Standing Committee at the end of each academic term including each student’s cumulative G.P.A. as reported by University Records.Each student being monitored by the Academic Standing Committee must follow the protocol from the Office of Academic Affairs and the Office of Student Affairs.
The progression policy addresses most elements of academic dismissal. The following two paragraphs address additional elements relating to academic dismissal. Required courses may not be attempted more than twice (i.e., a course may be repeated only once). Grades of D, F, and U are considered to be attempts to complete degree program courses. Failure to complete any course in the program within these limits will result in dismissal from the program. A dismissed student will receive written notification from the associate dean for academic affairs in person. The notice will include procedures for appeal. Dismissed students are required to turn in any LLU identification badges and will have their electronic and parking privileges revoked. The school will also notify the California Board of Pharmacy for termination of the student’s intern pharmacist license.
Readmission of dismissed students
A dismissed student may appeal his/her dismissal from the program directly with the Office of the Dean within five business days.
Withdrawal from the program
If, after having been registered, a student finds it necessary to withdraw during the course of a term, the associate dean of student affairs and admissions must be notified in writing. Arrangements for formal withdrawal must then be made by electronic submission. An exit interview with a member of the School of Pharmacy administration is required.
A candidate for the degree of Doctor of Pharmacy at Loma Linda University shall meet all of the following requirements:
- Satisfactory completion of all requirements for admission.
- Satisfactory completion of all requirements of the curriculum, including:
- specified attendance in Chapel
- total number of credit units
- all specified didactic and experiential course work
- passing applicable qualifying and comprehensive assessment examinations
- A cumulative grade point average of 2.0 or higher for the total degree program requirements.
- Evidence of moral character, with due regard for Christian citizenship, and consistent responsiveness to the established aims of the University and of the school.
- Evidence of good professional behavior through organizational activities, outreach involvement, and personal conduct.
- Completion of an exit interview with School of Pharmacy administration.
A student failing to meet any of these requirements may not graduate until such time as all requirements are met.
Students may not participate in commencement exercises until all course work has been satisfactorily completed. Students with a maximum of one APPE to complete after the commencement date will be allowed to participate. Receipt of degree and certification of completion will occur only when all course work is done and degree requirements are met.
ACPE complaint policy
The accreditation standards and guidelines for the professional program in pharmacy leading to the Doctor of Pharmacy Degree states in Standard No. 20: Student Complaints Policy that “the college or school must produce and make available to students a complaints policy that includes procedures to be followed in the event of a written complaint related to one of the accreditation standards, students rights to due process, and appeal mechanisms. Students must receive information on how they can submit a complaint to the ACPE for unresolved issues on a complaint related to the accreditation standards.”
The ACPE complaints policy with instructions on how to file a complaint can be found at <http://www.acpe-accredit.org/complaints/default.asp>.
While enrolled in the Doctor of Pharmacy program, students are required to complete a supervised series of practice-based courses to prepare them for licensure as pharmacists. To qualify for licensure as a pharmacist, students must graduate from the School of Pharmacy with a Doctor of Pharmacy degree, complete required internship hours, and achieve passing scores on the North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination (NAPLEX) and the law examination for the state where they plan to practice.
The experiential program consists of both introductory (IPPE) and advanced (APPE) pharmacy practice experiences designed to meet the required structured, supervised, professional experience for a Doctor of Pharmacy degree. Students and their supervising preceptors are guided by the Loma Linda University School of Pharmacy Experiential Program Manual, which contains guidelines and policies for successful completion of the program.
The School of Pharmacy requires participation in introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPE) each year during PY1 through PY3 to enhance practice skills and prepare students to function as members of a health-care team. Advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE) comprise the entire PY4 curriculum and are designed to help students integrate and refine skills learned in the first three years of pharmacy (didactic and experiential) course work.
The purpose of the experiential education program is to apply knowledge from classroom and laboratory courses to patient care (pharmacy practice). The ultimate goal of the experiential program is to produce well-rounded, competent, caring, and responsible pharmacists who can deliver exemplary pharmaceutical care, as well as communicate effectively with diverse patients and other health-care professionals.
Experiential education requirements
During experiential courses, students are assigned to both hospital-based and community-based pharmacy practice settings under the direct supervision of a School of Pharmacy preceptor. Participation in the IPPE/APPE courses requires a valid California intern pharmacist license issued by the California Board of Pharmacy. Students completing IPPE/APPE experiences at sites outside of California must be licensed in the applicable state. When a student is participating in an IPPE or APPE rotation, Loma Linda University's code of conduct and the guidelines found in the School of Pharmacy Student Policies and Procedures Manual are still in effect throughout the completion of this experience. If experiential site regulations and policies differ from University policies, the site policies supersede. In addition to the above-mentioned guidelines, the following regulations are to be followed by all professional pharmacy students assigned to experiential sites or rotations.
· Attendance is mandatory. Punctuality is expected, and tardiness will not be tolerated.
· Students must maintain their University e-mail accounts and check them at least daily to keep apprised of important information or announcements.
· All experiential educational assignments are made through the Department of Experiential and Continuing Education and are the responsibility of the chair of the Department of Experiential and Continuing Education.
· Students are not to function as agents or employees of the site. They must identify themselves as pharmacy students from Loma Linda University School of Pharmacy. While participating in this graded experience, students shall not, under any circumstances, receive financial remuneration from the experiential site. Failure to adhere to this policy will result in suspension and removal from the rotation and receipt of a failing grade in the course.
The student is responsible for all financial obligations associated with his/her pharmacy education. He/She is also responsible for fulfilling all site requirements prior to each rotation within the time frame requested. These responsibilities include transportation, food, lodging, and any other incidental costs related to practice assignments. Concurrent employment during the experiential experience does not exclude or excuse students from any responsibilities associated with course requirements. The student must possess a valid driver's license and is responsible for transportation to and from sites. IPPE rotations can be up to 70 miles from campus.
Loma Linda University School of Pharmacy students are required to dress and act professionally at all times. This expectation extends to experiential educational activities where the student is not on the campus but receives instruction and guidance through a School of Pharmacy preceptor.
The Department of Experiential and Continuing Education requires all students to adhere to the School of Pharmacy dress code and to wear their Loma Linda University identification cards and short white laboratory coats at all times while at the experiential site. The laboratory coat must be white, clean, and freshly pressed. Students who attend out of dress code will be considered absent by the preceptor and sent home to fulfill dress code requirements prior to returning to the practice site.
In addition to the general school requirements, other rules may apply for students who are off site. If the experiential site implements special attire or dress code requirements, the more stringent of the dress code requirements prevails, whether that of Loma Linda University or of the off-site institution.
Pharmacy practice experience
The chair of the Department of Experiential and Continuing Education coordinates both introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Participation in the practice-based experiences requires:
· Immunizations: Students must safeguard themselves and be sure that all University-required immunizations are up to date. Students are responsible for keeping the records of their own immunizations accessible. For the protection of patients and the students themselves, it is highly recommended that students receive the influenza vaccine in September during their PY4 year. Some sites may require this immunization.
·HIPAA certificate: All students are required to complete HIPAA training and obtain a certificate of completion annually.
·Bloodborne pathogen training: All students are required to complete training and obtain a certificate of completion annually.
·Medicare fraud and abuse training: Students must complete training and obtain a certificate of training annually.
·Tuberculosis screening: Students must be screened and cleared for tuberculosis annually during their enrollment (complete a one- or two-step PPD test, depending on the practice site requirement). A chest X-ray may also be required when medically indicated. Students shall follow specific instructions provided by the Department of Experiential and Continuing Education. A record of tuberculosis screening clearance must be on file with student health.
·Background check: Loma Linda University School of Pharmacy and practice facilities require background checks of all personnel, including students who are placed on site for experiential education. Some institutions may require the student to sign a confidentiality agreement or disclosure statement. Annual review and update is required during the program.
·Random drug screening: Random drug screening may be required for some practice settings. This screening may be above and beyond school-mandated screening.
·Intern license: Students must hold valid, nonprobationary California pharmacist intern licenses throughout the advanced pharmacy practice experiences.
·CPR/First aid: Students must hold valid CPR and first aid certificates. Effective dates must be current through the completion of PY4.
·Student health card: Students must carry the Loma Linda University student health insurance card with them at all times.
Requirements for participation in the IPPE/APPE program are subject to modification based on the requirements for licensure and the requirements for placement in the participating practice settings.
Introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE)
The goals of the introductory pharmacy practice experience are to sharpen students' clinical skills through direct patient-care activities in community, institutional, and ambulatory care settings; to introduce the student to different career opportunities in pharmacy; and to assist them in determining their career choices. Under the supervision of a School of Pharmacy preceptor, who is also a licensed pharmacist, the student will be provided opportunities to apply didactic knowledge to patient care in community, institutional, and ambulatory care settings early in the program. These experiences enhance communication, problem-solving, critical-thinking, and decision-making skills through direct patient-care activities.
Advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE)
Students are required to complete a total of six advanced pharmacy practice experiences in specific clinical areas. Four experiences (each lasting six weeks) will be in required fields of hospital practice, ambulatory care, internal medicine, and clinical community practice. Two experiences will be in elective fields. All APPE must be completed under the supervision of a School of Pharmacy preceptor who is also a licensed pharmacist. In order to progress to the advanced pharmacy practice experiences, a student must achieve PY4 standing as defined by the School of Pharmacy.
Pharmacy intern license
All School of Pharmacy students must have a current nonprobationary California intern pharmacist licenses. Students will be guided through the licensure application process during the first-year orientation. The intern licensure is required for the introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPE) and advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE). Information about the pharmacy intern license can be found online at <http://www.pharmacy.ca.gov/forms/intern_app_pkt.pdf>.
It is the student's responsibility to keep his/her pharmacy intern license current and valid. The Board of Pharmacy must be notified of address, enrollment status, or name changes within thirty days of the change. A photocopy of the student's valid pharmacy intern license must be on file in the school's Department of Experiential and Continuing Education.
Pharmacy intern hours
In order to be licensed as a pharmacist in California, the California State Board of Pharmacy requires each applicant to have completed a minimum of 1,500 hours of supervised pharmacy practice experience. As of January 1, 2016, an applicant for the pharmacist examination who has graduated on or after January 1, 2016, from an ACPE-accredited college of pharmacy or school of pharmacy recognized by the board shall be deemed to have satisfied those pharmacy practice experience requirements.
The Office of the Dean is the final authority on all financial matters and is charged with the interpretation of all financial policies. Any exceptions to published policy in regard to reduction or reimbursement of tuition must be approved by the dean. Any statement by individual faculty members, program directors, or department chairs in regard to these matters is not binding on the school or the University unless approved by the dean.
Registration is not complete until tuition and fees on the required installment are paid; therefore, the student should be prepared to make these payments during scheduled registration for each academic year. There may be adjustments in tuition and fees as economic conditions warrant.
General financial practices
The student is expected to arrange for financial resources to cover all expenses before the beginning of each school year. Previous accounts with other schools or with this University must have been settled.
Upon notification of acceptance, the applicant must deposit $500 to hold a place in the class. This amount is deducted from the tuition and fees due at registration and is nonrefundable should an applicant decide not to register.
International student deposit
Students who are not U.S. citizens or permanent residents entering Loma Linda University School of Pharmacy must deposit funds in the amount of the first full year of tuition. This deposit will be applied to the student's account for education costs during his/her last term of enrollment. An international student's deposit will be refunded if a student visa is not obtained.
Schedule of charges
The following charges are subject to change without notice.
|$45,000||Annual block tuition|
|$3,292||University enrollment fee (health-care insurance, Drayson Center membership, student activities, and publications)|
|$500||Acceptance deposit; nonrefundable, applicable to tuition|
|$1,500||Estimated books and supplies|
|$25||Returned check processing fee|
|$90||California Board of Pharmacy internship license (application, examination, interim practice permit); plus Live Scan fingerprinting fee (cost varies).|
On- and off-campus student housing
Students may go to <llu.edu/central/housing> for housing information and a housing application form.
For additional policies governing Loma Linda University students, see Section II of this CATALOG, as well as the University Student Handbook. Students are responsible for informing themselves of and satisfactorily meeting all regulations pertinent to registration, matriculation, and graduation.
Michael D. Hogue
Danielle L. Davis
Willie L. Davis
Jody M. Gonzalez
Soo Min Jang
Nancy E. Kawahara
Justin M. Kinney
Kathryn T. Knecht
Jessa M. Koch
Lee H. Nguyen
Caroline M. Sierra
Noreen Chan Tompkins
Huyentran N. Tran
Secondary and adjunct faculty
Steven C. Forland