Dental Hygiene — A.S., B.S. (Entry Level)
Dental hygiene, a profession dating back to 1913, is largely concerned with preventive health services. The hygienist works in association with the dentist in private practice offices, industrial organizations, schools, hospitals, state or federal public health services, and the armed forces.
The B.S. degree is organized as a four-year college curriculum. The freshman and sophomore years of largely prescribed, preprofessional study may be taken at any regionally accredited college. The professional curriculum begins with the junior year in the School of Dentistry. The curriculum is approved by the Commission on Dental Accreditation of the American Dental Association. The first class at this University graduated in 1961.
After completion of the required prerequisite course work, the A.S. degree dental hygiene student enters the seven-quarter program leading to the Associate in Science degree in dental hygiene. The student will meet eligibility in the sixth quarter, after successful completion of course work, for the written Dental Hygiene National Board Examination. After successful completion of the seventh quarter, the graduate will be eligible to sit for a state and/or regional clinical board examination.
Institutional learning outcomes
Students who graduate with the Associate in Science or the Bachelor of Science degree in dental hygiene will meet the University outcomes.
Dental hygiene’s ten core competencies
The curriculum is designed to ensure that by graduation, all students will have the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to successfully enter the practice of dental hygiene. Students meeting graduation requirements must be able to:
|Competency 1:||Apply a professional code of ethics in all patient and professional interactions.|
|Competency 2:||Adhere to the federal/state legal and regulatory framework in the provision of oral health care.|
|Competency 3:||Apply critical-thinking and problem-solving skills in the provision of oral health care to promote whole patient health and wellness.|
|Competency 4:||Use evidence-based rationales and emerging treatment modalities to evaluate and incorporate accepted standards of care.|
|Competency 5:||Incorporate self-assessment and professional growth through lifelong learning.|
|Competency 6:||Advance oral health services through affiliations with professional organizations, service activities, and research.|
|Competency 7:||Apply quality assurance process to ensure a continued commitment to accepted standards of care.|
|Competency 8:||Communicate effectively with diverse individuals and groups, serving all persons without discrimination by acknowledging and appreciating diversity.|
|Competency 9:||Provide accurate, consistent, and complete assessment, planning, implementation, evaluation, and documentation for the provision of all phases of the dental hygiene process of care.|
|Competency 10:||Provide collaborative, individualized patient care that is comprehensive and compassionate.|
The A.S. and B.S. degree curricula are accredited by the Commission on Dental Accreditation of the American Dental Association. Loma Linda University is regionally accredited by the WASC Senior College and University Commission (WSCUC), 985 Atlantic Avenue, Suite 100, Alameda, CA 94501; telephone: 510/748-9001; fax: 510/748-9797; Web site: <http://www.wascweb.org> or <http://www.wascsenior.org/contact>.
DNHY 216. Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry. 2 Units.
Introduces preventive dentistry concepts, including the history of dentistry and dental hygiene in oral health promotion and disease prevention. Emphasizes the prevention of oral diseases through effective patient education and motivation, including current theories and principles of psychology as they relate to learning and teaching, personality development and change, and interpersonal processes and dynamics in oral health-care education. Includes instruction in oral health-care techniques for clinical application during concurrent preclinical laboratory sessions.
DNHY 217. Community Oral Health Theory. 2 Units.
Philosophy, principles, language, and objectives of dental public health. Critical review of literature, including epidemiology of oral disease. Principles and practices involved in teaching community oral health. Lesson plan development. Methods and practice of professional presentation.
DNHY 218. Community Oral Health Practicum. 2 Units.
Fieldwork in local schools and the community.
DNHY 290. Research Design and Biostatistics. 3 Units.
Introduces research methodology. Fundamentals of statistical analysis and critique of research data in scientific literature. Student reviews literature and designs proposal in preparation for community oral health practicum.
DNHY 303. Dental Materials and Techniques. 2 Units.
Materials and equipment used in dentistry. Practice in the manipulation and use of common materials. Includes a laboratory component.
DNHY 305. Oral Anatomy Lecture. 2 Units.
Anatomy of the teeth and surrounding tissues.
DNHY 305L. Oral Anatomy Laboratory. 1 Unit.
Laboratory for DNHY 305, Oral Anatomy Lecture.
DNHY 309. Radiology I. 3 Units.
Principles governing radiation production and safety relative to radiographic anatomy/dental materials. Fundamentals of intraoral and extraoral techniques, darkroom procedures, and mounting of radiographs. Practical application of techniques. Basic fundamentals of quality assurance.
DNHY 310. Radiology II. 3 Units.
Continues laboratory techniques. Intraoral and extraoral radiographic interpretation—including anatomy, pathology, and interpretation of the disease process of the oral hard tissues. Basic fundamentals of radiographic selection criteria. Includes laboratory component.
DNHY 321. Preclinical Dental Hygiene I Lecture. 2 Units.
Preclinical phases of dental hygiene, including instrumentation techniques, patient management, intra- and extraoral soft-tissue assessment, charting procedures, disease processes, patient-health assessment, basic operatory preparation, clinical asepsis, and oral health-care techniques.
DNHY 321L. Preclinical Dental Hygiene I Laboratory. 2 Units.
Laboratory course for DNHY 321, Preclinical Dental Hygiene I.
DNHY 322. Preclinical Dental Hygiene II Lecture. 2 Units.
DNHY 322L. Preclinical Dental Hygiene II Laboratory. 2 Units.
DNHY 323. Preclinical Dental Hygiene III. 2 Units.
DNHY 323L. Preclinical Laboratory. 1 Unit.
DNHY 328. Dental Hygiene Portfolio Practicum. 1 Unit.
Student develops a capstone project to show evidence of personal growth and success in the dental hygiene core competencies.
DNHY 375. Dental Hygiene Clinic. 1 Unit.
Clinical application of skills and techniques of dental hygiene. Prophylaxes on pediatric and adult patients.
DNHY 380. Medically Compromised Patients. 2 Units.
Lectures dealing with the medically compromised patient relative to the use of local anesthetics, drug interactions, need for antibiotic premedication, and necessary modification in treatment planning. Repeated registrations required to fulfill total units.
DNHY 381. Pharmacology for the Dental Hygienist I. 2 Units.
Introduces the basic principles of pharmacology. Emphasizes the use, actions, and clinical implications/contraindications to medications used by dental patients.
DNHY 382. Pharmacology for the Dental Hygienist II. 2 Units.
Continues DNHY 381. Emphasizes application through the use of case studies.
DNHY 390. Introductory Statistics. 2 Units.
Fundamentals of statistical analysis and critique of research data in scientific literature and in student research projects. Inferential and descriptive statistics, frequency distribution, histograms, bar graphs, and statistical tests. Computer applications in preparing and analyzing research data. Domain II.
DNHY 391. Introduction to Grant Writing. 2 Units.
An overview of the basic principles and practice of effective public health and education grant writing. Introduces students to the processes, structures, factors, and essential skills required to develop competitive proposals. Familiarizes students with key elements in proposal preparation; differentiates foundation (private) and government (public) grants and grant making; identifies prospective funding sources; and engages students in the grant review process.
DNHY 392. Grant Writing II. 2 Units.
Continues DNHY 391, Introduction to Grant Writing I. Guides students through the development of a private (foundation) grant proposal, including project need and evaluation, design, and budget preparation. Familiarizes students with the key elements of preparing public (federal) grant applications.
Prerequisite: DNHY 391.
DNHY 400. Oral Disease Management. 2 Units.
An overview of the role of the oral health professional in the management of individuals with oral disease. Explores the process of care, with a focus on the evidence-based pathophysiology of common oral disease conditions—such as, dental caries, periodontal diseases, and oral pathology.
DNHY 405. Introduction to Periodontics. 2 Units.
Reviews gross and microscopic anatomy of the periodontium in health and disease. Primary etiology of periodontal disease. Examines patient's clinical periodontal status. Introduces the diagnostic and treatment-planning process.
DNHY 406. Orthodontics Concepts for Dental Hygiene. 1 Unit.
Basic skeletal and dental growth and development as applied to orthodontics. Treatment modalities. Retention principles and methods. Impressions for orthodontic models. Intraoral measurements for orthodontic procedures. Placing and removing orthodontic separators. Placing, ligating, and removing prepared arch wires. Removing excess cement from orthodontic bands. Checking for loose bands. Seating adjusted retainers and headgear. Instructing the patient. Using ultrasonic scaler to remove excess cement.
DNHY 408. Professional Ethics. 2 Units.
Develops understanding of hygienist's obligations to the public and to his/her professional association. Defines the ethical and mature conduct expected of professional health-care providers. Compares and contrasts professional ethics and personal morality as they relate to dental hygiene practice.
DNHY 409. Jurisprudence and Practice Management. 2 Units.
Laws and regulations that govern the practice of dental hygiene, with special emphasis on California regulations. Standards of government regulations. Obligations of the hygienist to the public and to his/her profession.
DNHY 410. Cultural Competency in Health Care. 2 Units.
Explores cultural competency as it relates to the health, illness, and healing beliefs in caring for people from diverse backgrounds. Addresses Christian perspectives on wholeness.
DNHY 411. Dental Hygiene Topics I. 2 Units.
Student develops advanced hygiene-care planning skills, with emphasis on knowledge synthesis. Topics cover aspects of patient care, including whole-patient care and patients with special needs.
DNHY 412. Dental Hygiene Topics II. 2 Units.
Continues instruction in advanced clinical skills. Areas covered include pulp vitality, dentinal hypersensitivity, esthetic whitening procedures, chemotherapeutic agents, and use of technology for the dental hygiene process of care.
DNHY 413. Dental Hygiene Topics III. 2 Units.
Topics related to employment for dental hygienists. Additional topics include various opportunities in the dental hygiene profession and educational advancement strategies.
DNHY 414. Personal Finance. 2 Units.
Personal finance topics, including credit, taxes, insurance, real estate, budgeting, housing, and inflation.
DNHY 415. Applied Nutrition. 2 Units.
Basic concepts of nutrition. Balance, adequacy, nutrient density, dietary choice, weight management, nutrition, and oral health. Addresses nutritional needs of children and the aged, and medically and dentally compromised patients. Dietary assessment and counseling.
DNHY 416. Dental Health Education I. 2 Units.
Current theories and principles of psychology as they relate to learning and teaching, personality development and change, and interpersonal processes and dynamics.
DNHY 417. Dental Health Education II. 2 Units.
Principles and practices involved in teaching dental public health. Fieldwork in local schools and community. Methods and practice of professional presentation.
DNHY 419. Essentials of Public Health for Dental Hygienists. 3 Units.
Public health background, issues and concepts—including history from ancient times to HMOs; definitions, organization and infrastructure; function, practices, programs, and services. Contributions of important public health practitioners. Political, social, and economic considerations of public health programs.
DNHY 421. Research I. 2 Units.
Introduces research methodology. Evaluates literature, emphasizing statistics adequate for interpretation of the literature. Student reviews literature and designs a research proposal in preparation for professional presentation of a table clinic or informational project. Inprogress (IP) given until completion of all units for this course.
DNHY 422. Research II. 2 Units.
Review and emphasis of research methodology. Develops literature review, emphasizing statistics adequate for interpretation of the literature. Student continues to develop a research proposal in preparation for professional presentation of a table clinic or informational project. Student conducts research experiment or project culminating in presentation of the results at a professional meeting. In progress (IP) given until completion of all units for this course.
DNHY 425. Educational Psychology for Health Professionals. 3 Units.
Fundamentals of psychological principles related to learning in professional and higher education. Major theories of learning and behavior change; as well as research in the areas of cognitive, social, emotional, and moral development. Emphasizes the nature of learning at all age levels, motivation, communication skills; and the influence of cultural, racial, gender, ethnic, and socioeconomic diversity; and stimulates high-level thinking and problem solving.
DNHY 428. Health-Care Management. 3 Units.
Management theory, planning, organizing, directing, and controlling (including budgetary controls). Department productivity and theories of work simplification. Preparation of resumes, interviewing skills, professional attitudes, group theory, and group dynamics. Students spend the last two-to-three weeks doing special projects designed and supervised by their department.
DNHY 431. Public Health Dentistry. 3 Units.
Philosophy, principles, language, and objectives of public health and public health dentistry. Critical review of the literature.
DNHY 435. Special Topics in Periodontal Therapy. 2 Units.
Studies advanced periodontal topics and special problems related to periodontal therapy.
DNHY 436. Ethical and Legal Principles in Education. 2 Units.
Discusses theoretical and practical applications of the ethical and legal principles and issues encountered in an educational setting.
DNHY 437. Ethical and Legal Principles in Public Health for the Dental Hygienist. 2 Units.
Discusses theoretical and practical applications of the ethical and legal principles and issues encountered in public health settings.
DNHY 441. Principles of Education I. 3 Units.
Introduces methods of effective instruction and curriculum design for adult learners. Topics include learning and teaching styles, development of course goals, learning outcomes and objectives; teaching methods and strategies for face-to-face and online instructional presentations, public education, in-service, and continuing education; and cultivation of respect for diversity in learning.
DNHY 442. Principles of Education II. 3 Units.
Integrates knowledge and skills related to educational methodology with emphasis on experiential teaching; outcomes assessments, including test construction and implementation; curriculum vitae and resume writing; accreditation; leadership in higher education; and promotion and tenure. Students prepare and present lectures and develop an examination for a didactic course.
Prerequisite: DNHY 441.
DNHY 444. Teaching Practicum. 3 Units.
Develops the student teacher's skills in the preparation and presentation of didactic material relevant to the education of dental hygiene students. Provides practical experience in teaching methods through active participation in all aspects of the assigned didactic or laboratory.
DNHY 446. Principles of Clinical Instruction. 3 Units.
Provides students experience in developing criteria and methods for teaching strategies and evaluation mechanisms to be used in preclinical and clinical instruction. Emphasizes clinical evaluation procedures and the skills and strategies utilized to promote interpersonal and psychomotor skill development in students.
DNHY 449. Treating the Special-Needs Patient. 3 Units.
Develops the student-teacher¹s ability not only to identify patients with
special care needs, but also to recognize and understand the appropriate
care alternatives. Addresses the role of commonly prescribed medications
used for treatment to determine if treatment modifications are appropriate.
DNHY 450. Junior Clinical Seminar. 1 Unit.
A two-quarter course that introduces topics and issues directly and indirectly related to the comprehensive practice of dental hygiene.
DNHY 451. Clinical Seminar I. 1 Unit.
Topics and issues related to clinical competency and development of critical-thinking skills through the use of patient-care examples and class discussion.
DNHY 452. Clinical Seminar II. 1 Unit.
Topics and issues related to clinical competency and preparation for the clinical board examination. Student development of advanced patient-care plans.
DNHY 453. Clinical Seminar III. 1 Unit.
Topics and issues related to clinical competency. Presentation of advanced patient-care plans.
Prerequisite or concurrent: DNHY 452.
DNHY 464. Evidence-based Decision Making. 2 Units.
Introduces students to use of the Web for instructional purposes. Students evaluate the usefulness of various on-line journals and databases, as well as conduct productive database literature searches. Critical analysis of scientific publications provides practice applying formal rules of evaluating and ranking scientific evidence.
DNHY 475. Dental Hygiene Clinic I. 4 Units.
Integrates all components of oral health care into the clinical treatment of patients.
DNHY 476. Dental Hygiene Clinic II. 4 Units.
Integrates all components of oral health care into the clinical treatment of patients.
Prerequisite or concurrent: DNHY 475.
DNHY 477. Dental Hygiene Clinic III. 4 Units.
DNHY 478. Advanced Clinical Concepts. 2 Units.
Reviews advanced skills in dental hygiene instrumentation needed as a clinical educator. Topics include alternative fulcrums and hand positions, uses of specialty instruments, and alternative techniques for instrumentation and clinician ergonomics.
DNHY 495. Dental Hygiene National Board Preparation. 1,2 Unit.
Lecture and case-based reviews of the entire dental hygiene curriculum, including, but not limited to: prerequisite basic sciences; preclinical, laboratory, and clinical sciences; and behavioral sciences. Reviews in preparation for the dental hygiene national board examination directly related to concurrent test-taking skill workshops based on standardized testing evidence for success.
DNHY 497. Advanced Shadowing Experience. 12 Units.
An elective course open to students seeking shadowing experience in dental hygiene. Credits do not count toward an academic degree.
DNHY 498. Dental Hygiene Directed Study. 1-10 Units.
Independent research on problems/topics related to dentistry, dental hygiene, and dental education; collaboration with researcher/faculty member. Written report required.
Prerequisite: DNHY 421, DNHY 422, DNHY 390.
DNHY 499. Research Writing. 2 Units.
Elective course for students wishing to write their research study for submission to professional journals for possible publication.