Emergency Medical Care — B.S.

Closed to admissions for the 2019-2020 academic year.

Program director
David López, Interim

Medical director
Laren Tan

Advisory committee

Clark Binely
Jeff Covitz
Captain Mark Hartwig
Lisa Higuchi
Alan Patee
Laren Tan
Jonathan Zygowiec
Physician Assistant
Matthew Caffey
Heidee Hansen
David Lopez
David Oleson
Public Safety, Clinical and Forensics Psychology
Tim Nakamura
Michael Osur
Respiratory Therapy
David Lopez
Carrie Cobos
Biomedical Science
Christopher Wilson

Mission statement  

The faculty of Loma Linda University's Emergency Medical Care Program believes in the promotion and support of excellence for the profession through education, knowledge development, research, leadership, and public service. The mission of the program is to:

  1. Support the mission and goals of Loma Linda University and the School of Allied Health Professions.
  2. Facilitate student professional development, expansion of knowledge, and contribution to the field of emergency medical care through guidance, resources, leadership, and example. 
  3. Support the medical community's needs for qualified advanced emergency medical care practitioners who will facilitate positive changes through patient advocacy, leadership, knowledge discovery, and implementation.
  4. Encourage continuing professional and personal development within the community through volunteerism and community service geared toward disease prevention and intervention.

Program learning outcomes

In addition to the stated institutional learning outcomes, by the end of this program, the graduate should be able to:

  1. Exhibit advanced leadership skills.
  2. Apply management concepts and theory to decision making, process management, and emergency medical care administration
  3. Apply theories of knowledge acquisition and learning theory.
  4. Make use of science and research in the practice of emergency medical care
  5. Perform emergency medical care practice and delivery.

Technical requirements

Student must have consistent access to and knowledge of how to use the following:

  1. Personal computer.
  2. Microsoft Office programs (Word, PowerPoint, Excel)
  3. Internet and e-mail.
  4. Video conferencing programs (Skype, FaceTime, Zoom)

CPR certification

Students are required to have current health-care provider adult, child, and infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) certification for all scheduled clinical experience. CPR certification must be completed at the American Heart Association health-care provider level. Certification may be completed prior to beginning the program of study or may be obtained at Loma Linda University. Classes are available on campus at Life Support Education, University Arts building, 24887 Taylor Street, Suite 102.


In addition to Loma Linda University and School of Allied Health Professions admissions requirements, the applicant must also complete the following requirements:

To be eligible for the junior year of the Emergency Medical Care Program, the applicant must:

  • Be an EMT or a paramedic, a registered nurse/MICN, or a respiratory therapist.
  • Complete the subject requirements listed as prerequisites.
  • Arrange for an interview at the University by appointment.

Prerequisite/Corequisite (general program)

Humanities. Choose a minimum of three areas from the following: *20
Foreign language
Art/music appreciation/history
Human anatomy, with laboratory **
Human physiology, with laboratory **
Chemistry one quarter/semester, with laboratory **
Introductory physics, one quarter/semester **,***
Microbiology with laboratory
College algebra **,***
General psychology or General sociology **
Cultural anthropology or an approved course dealing with cultural diversity **
Select 4 more quarter units from the following:4
Political science
English composition, complete sequence **
Personal health or nutrition
Two physical activity courses
Electives to meet 127 quarter units ****

Prerequisite/Corequisite (pre-physician assistant track)

Humanities. Choose a minimum of three areas from the following: *20
Foreign language (Spanish language recommended)
Art/music appreciation/history
Human anatomy, with laboratory **
Human physiology, with laboratory **
Genetics course, recommended
Microbiology with laboratory
General chemistry with laboratory, complete sequence **
Introductory physics with laboratory or general physics **
College algebra **
General psychology or General Sociology **
Cultural anthropology or an approved course dealing with cultural diversity **
General or introductory sociology
Freshman English, complete sequence **
Personal health or nutrition
Two physical activity courses
Electives to meet 105 quarter units ***

Prerequisite/Corequisite (pre-medicine track)

Humanities. Choose a minimum of three areas from the following: *20
Foreign language (Spanish language recommended)
Art/music appreciation/history
General biology/zoology with laboratory, complete sequence **
General chemistry with laboratory, complete sequence **
General physics with laboratory, complete sequence **
Organic chemistry with laboratory, complete sequence
Biochemistry, recommended
Microbiology with laboratory
College algebra (calculus recommended) **
General psychology or General Sociology **
Cultural anthropology or an approved course dealing with cultural diversity **
Select 4 more quarter units from the following:4
Political science
Freshman English, complete sequence **
Personal health or nutrition
Two physical activity courses
Electives to meet 105 quarter units ***

Note: A maximum of 105 quarter units or 70 semester units from a junior/community college may be transferred for credit.

Additionally, C- grades and below are not transferable for credit.

General education requirements

For total unit requirements for graduation, see Division of General Studies.

Junior YearUnits
AHCJ 305Infectious Disease and the Health-Care Provider1
AHCJ 328Wholeness Portfolio I1
AHCJ 426Introduction to Computer Applications2
EMMC 301 or AHCJ 402Pathophysiology in Emergency Care I3
EMMC 302 or AHCJ 403Pathophysiology in Emergency Care II3
EMMC 303Pathophysiology in Emergency Care III2
EMMC 308Pharmacology3
EMMC 314ECG Interpretation and Analysis2
EMMC 315Cardiology3
EMMC 31612-Lead ECG Interpretation2
EMMC 325Current Issues in Emergency Medical Care2
EMMC 331Theories of Emergency Medical Services I3
EMMC 332Theories of Emergency Medical Services II3
EMMC 389Junior Seminars1
EMMC 425Instruction and Curriculum Design in Emergency Services3
EMMC 451Health Care Management for Prehospital Providers2
EMMC 484Legal Issues in Health Care2
RELT 423Loma Linda Perspectives2
RELT 440 or 416World Religions2
Senior Year
AHRM 471Statistics and Research for Health Professionals I3
AHRM 472Statistics and Research for Health Professionals II3
AHCJ 498Wholeness Portfolio II1
EMMC 429Psychosocial Models and Interventions3
EMMC 435Disasters, WMD, and Terrorism3
EMMC 436Trauma and Surgical Care3
EMMC 445Perinatal and Pediatric Care3
EMMC 446Physical Diagnosis3
EMMC 447Geriatrics and Aging3
EMMC 448Advanced Physical Diagnosis and Critical Care3
EMMC 452Seminars in EMS Management I2
EMMC 453Seminars in EMS Management II2
EMMC 464Ethics and Leadership in Emergency Services2
EMMC 471Senior Project I2
EMMC 472Senior Project II2
EMMC 489Senior Seminars1
RELE 457Christian Ethics and Health Care2
RSTH 411Advanced Cardiac Life Support2
RELR 4271Crisis Counseling2
 Total Units: 87

Noncourse requirements

Community Service Requirement

Sharing knowledge and volunteering at the community level allows the EMC student to develop the skill of translating difficult concepts into useful information to the public.  It also develops a greater appreciation for others that may offer different insights or experiences to learn from.  In addition to community service that may be part of the Wholeness Portfolio (AHCJ 328) requirement, each student will be expected to complete six hours of a community project or community service per quarter for a total of 24 hours. The program director must approve all community service projects before commencement of the activity.  Each activity should include a mechanism by which the EMC student is utilizing his or her professional skill/experience to educate or provide a service to their community of choice. Community service activity will be integrated into service-based learning modules during course work as well.

Capstone Requirement

A capstone project must be completed as a written document and presented orally at a seminar.  Capstone courses may be completed prior to capstone project completion.  Capstone projects must be completed to publishable standards before graduation.

Normal time to complete the program

Four (4) years — two (2) years (eight [8] academic quarters) at LLU, based on full-time enrollment; part time permitted

A total of 192 units are required to graduate with a Bachelor of Science in Emergency Medical Care. 127 units of electives, 33 of which can be chosen from the EMC program, are required.   


EMMC 217. Community Emergency Response Team I. 1 Unit.

Theory and practice of the community emergency response team role. Addresses disaster preparedness, fire suppression, disaster medical care, search and rescue, crisis psychology, response to terrorism, and team organization and administration. Requires completion of skills laboratory.

EMMC 301. Pathophysiology in Emergency Care I. 3 Units.

Develops understanding of human anatomy and physiology to integrate pathophysiology, disease mechanisms, and dysfunction within an emergency medicine framework. Emphasizes integration of organ systems ranging from cardiac, vascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary; along with specific mechanisms--such as injury, inflammation, and infection-- that highlight pathology in medical patients.

EMMC 302. Pathophysiology in Emergency Care II. 3 Units.

Advances knowledge and integration of pathophysiology within emergency medicine by adding additional organ systems and approaches to disease mechanisms. Emphasizes integration of neurology, endocrine, musculoskeletal, and multisystem areas with a focus on injury and inflammation in trauma patients.

EMMC 303. Pathophysiology in Emergency Care III. 2 Units.

Focuses on critical thinking, conceptual knowledge, and application of the foundational principles of pathophysiology. Emphasizes recognition of common disease states, integration of the disease mechanisms and process, and presentation of case reflections to summarize pathology in patients presenting with medical or traumatic complaints.

EMMC 308. Pharmacology. 3 Units.

General overview of pharmacology, including pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and therapeutics of drugs. Basic definitions, sources of information, classification of drugs, and principles and mechanisms of drug actions. Emphasizes prehospital drug categories.

EMMC 314. ECG Interpretation and Analysis. 2 Units.

Develops basic ECG interpretation skills. Focuses on anatomy and physiology, underlying pathophysiology, and basic rhythm recognition. Overview of related treatments. Emphasizes skills needed by bedside practitioner to differentiate between benign and life-threatening dysrhythmias.

EMMC 315. Cardiology. 3 Units.

Development of assessment skills and medical management of patients with acute and chronic cardiovascular disorders. Focuses on anatomy and physiology, underlying pathophysiology, advanced history taking and physical assessment, cardiovascular pharmacology, electrical modalities, cardiac diagnostic testing, and current research. Emergency care of patients with myocardial infarction and cardiovascular trauma. Interaction with cardiac patients and clinical observation of diagnostic studies.

EMMC 316. 12-Lead ECG Interpretation. 2 Units.

Application and interpretation of the 12-lead system. Emphasizes recognition of the acute myocardial infarction. Includes identifying axis deviation, acute ischemic conditions, electrolyte imbalances, bundle-branch block, and infarct impostors. Attention to care of cardiac patients, emphasizing patient assessment, data collection, and use of the 12-lead to guide rapid intervention. Certificate issued upon successful course completion.

EMMC 317. Community Emergency Response Team Development and Instruction. 2 Units.

Development of sustainable community emergency response team (CERT) programs. Review of core CERT knowledge, competencies, and instructional techniques in disaster preparedness, fire suppression, disaster medical care, search and rescue, crisis psychology, response to terrorism, and team organization and administration. Discussion of adult learning theories and skills instruction. Meets federal/state criteria to become a CERT trainer.
Prerequisite: EMMC 217 or equivalent CERT Basic certification.

EMMC 325. Current Issues in Emergency Medical Care. 2 Units.

Seminar-style discussion on current issues and controversies in emergency medicine. May include topics such as prehospital use of thrombolytic therapy; managed care; primary-care, advanced scope paramedic practice, etc.

EMMC 331. Theories of Emergency Medical Services I. 3 Units.

Introduces prehospital medical services. Roles and responsibilities of paramedics and EMTs. EMS systems design, constraints, and operating problems. EMS environment and scene issues. Medical-legal issues. History and current state of prehospital care and medical oversight.

EMMC 332. Theories of Emergency Medical Services II. 3 Units.

Investigates the dimensions of emergency medical services. Influence of environment on oxygen delivery. Develops paradigms for EMS. Decision making in the constrained environment. Stress models and role theories. Discusses EMS as sequential environments from public health to critical care.

EMMC 389. Junior Seminars. 0.5,1 Units.

Discusses issues of professionalism and career development in the whole person context; written, oral, and electronic communication; writing and research skills; use of computer resources.

EMMC 425. Instruction and Curriculum Design in Emergency Services. 3 Units.

Methods of instruction and curriculum design for adult learners. Classroom management techniques and instruction in public education, in-service and continuing education, higher education, clinical teaching, conferences, and individual guidance. Applies curriculum design theories to instructional units and objectives, and assessment procedures and tools. Introduces learning-experience design, appropriate technology selection, learner centered materials, and respect for diversity in learning.

EMMC 429. Psychosocial Models and Interventions. 3 Units.

Applies major models of stress, crisis, and psychological trauma to the roles of health-care providers. Addresses psychosocial reactions and responses of populations, individuals, and care providers to societal disruption and trauma, medical emergencies, and death and dying. Addresses suicide intervention, critical incident debriefings, and death notification as well as methods of providing temporary, adequate psychological care for individuals in psychosocial crisis.

EMMC 435. Disasters, WMD, and Terrorism. 3 Units.

Introduces EMS response involving large-scale natural disasters and weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Explores prehospital and hospital treatment. Evaluates current issues facing EMS personnel. Crisis and consequence management, theories of terrorism response, and state and federal resources. Discusses interagency roles, overview of social and psychological aspects, policy development and the media, comparison of response protocols of disaster versus terrorist incidents.

EMMC 436. Trauma and Surgical Care. 3 Units.

Emergency evaluation, assessment, and care of the trauma patient. Prehospital resuscitation, stabilization, and rapid transport. Overview of traumatic injuries, multisystem trauma, surgical management, and care of the trauma patient. Principles of care of the patient after stabilization and surgery. Discusses kinematics, emerging trends in trauma care, trauma centers, and injury-prevention programs.

EMMC 445. Perinatal and Pediatric Care. 3 Units.

Emergency evaluation and care of the perinatal and pediatric patient. Cardiac, gastrointestinal, hematologic, renal, and metabolic conditions and treatment. Discusses appropriate versus inappropriate child development and behavior, including developmental stages, temperaments, feeding disorders, sleep disorders, mentally challenged, and attention deficit. Psychosocial aspects of pediatric, child, and adolescent psychiatric disorders.

EMMC 446. Physical Diagnosis. 3 Units.

Systemic review of assessment techniques utilized in patient assessment. Emphasizes assessment of major body systems. Overview of physical examination techniques and interpretation of findings. Lecture, reading, and discussion of case.

EMMC 447. Geriatrics and Aging. 3 Units.

A forum for discussing current trends in aging and for identifying the needs of an older population. Discusses psychological and social changes in the older adult. Physiologic process of aging and the medical considerations unique to age. Management of geriatric trauma, medical emergencies, and the impact of chronic diseases. Establishing a social response to aging and viable health care-delivery models for older adults.

EMMC 448. Advanced Physical Diagnosis and Critical Care. 3 Units.

Advanced assessment techniques utilized in management of critical care patient. Emphasizes interpretation of laboratory tests, chest radiographs, arterial blood gases, and other tests used to evaluate the patient. Theories of mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy. Administration of aerosol treatments, gases, and gas mixtures. Operation of transport ventilators and intravenous pumps and infusion devices.

EMMC 451. Health Care Management for Prehospital Providers. 2 Units.

Basic principles of management and how they relate to EMS systems. Federal, state, and local authority for EMS delivery and services, resources for and constraints of EMS systems, relationship to and impact on public safety and health care-delivery systems, interface of public and private organizations, current and future issues.

EMMC 452. Seminars in EMS Management I. 2 Units.

Management theories applied to EMS management and practice. Public/private sector integration, public/media relations, government relations, stress management, management/leadership-skills development, decision making, performance improvement.

EMMC 453. Seminars in EMS Management II. 2 Units.

Further applies management theories to EMS management and practice. The quality management process and its relationship to continuous learning, promoting organizational/system change, evaluating effectiveness of performance-improvement projects, strategic planning, and integration of EMS with public safety and public health.

EMMC 464. Ethics and Leadership in Emergency Services. 2 Units.

Examines theory and conceptual frameworks for ethical leadership as a collective enterprise. Explores emerging paradigms of leadership. Clarifies and contrasts differing approaches to leadership and leadership development, and the situational approach of processes of administration, management, and leadership. Develops a personal philosophy of leadership, assesses individual characteristics, and relates those strengths to leadership situations.

EMMC 471. Senior Project I. 2 Units.

Project developed, implemented, and evaluated by students for in-depth experience in area of choice. May include research; community projects; and/or education, management, or clinical affiliations. Students work under direct supervision of assigned faculty mentor.

EMMC 472. Senior Project II. 2 Units.

Continues project developed in EMMC 471.

EMMC 484. Legal Issues in Health Care. 2 Units.

Introduces the legal system as it pertains to health-care professionals. Concepts of malpractice, litigation, consent for and refusal of medical treatment, advanced directives, and patient confidentiality. Discusses employment issues, including discrimination and sexual harassment. Develops health and safety programs per OSHA regulations, risk management, legal issues in vehicle operations and equipment, and EMS and law-enforcement interactions.

EMMC 489. Senior Seminars. 1 Unit.

Discusses issues of scholarship, professionalism, portfolio development and refinement, short- and long-term goal setting, and development of resume/curriculum vitae.

EMMC 498. Special Topics. 1-4 Units.

Special topics in emergency medical care.

EMMC 499. Special Topics Laboratory/Clinical Practicum. 1-8 Units.

Special topics in emergency medical care laboratory and clinical practicum.